CLINICAL PATTERNS OF CHILDREN WITH RHEUMATOLOGICAL DISEASES IN TIKUR ANBESSA SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA: A RETROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Keywords:Pediatric Rheumatological diseases, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Comorbid diseases, Addis Ababa University, Rheumatological disorders
Background: Pediatric rheumatologic diseases are heterogeneous group of disorders with different disease manifestations among various populations. There are no reports of studies on pediatric rheumatologic diseases among Ethiopians. We present here in and define the clinical patterns of pediatric rheumatologic diseases encountered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, in
Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia.
Method: Hospital records of patients with a diagnosis of pediatric rheumatologic diseases with onset at the age of 16 years or less were reviewed between Sept. 2019 and Sept.2020. Diseases were classified based on the international league of associations for rheumatology (ILAR) diagnostic criteria.
Result: A total of 52 patients with pediatric rheumatologic disorders of onset at age of 16 years or less were included in the study. The average age at disease onset was 5.9 yrs (range 1-10 years). The average age at first visit to hospital was 9.14 yrs (range:3-12 yrs) and with a female to male ratio of 1.8:1. Rheumatoid factor negative arthritis, 33 %, was the most frequent type of rheumatologic diseases. Systemic onset arthritis was found in 12% of the cases. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) was found in 6%, 6% had Henoch-schonlein Purpura and One child had scleroderma. Polyarticular RF +ve 14 %, Oligoarticular JIA 20 %, JDM (juvenile dermatomyositis) 8 % and other vasculitis 2% were other findings. ANA (antinuclear antibody) was found in 25%.
Conclusion: Polyarticular rheumatoid factor negative Juvenile Idiopathic arthritis was a predominant type of rheumatological diseases. Timely consideration and diagnosis based on ILAR are recommended to guide care rheumatological diseases. Further studies and training opportunities in the field are recommended to uncover the national burden of the disease